:::::::::: The 1st Zone INT'L ::::::::::

Feature comparison of plants in genus ginseng
Common name (Scientific name) No of leaflets Root appearance Origin
Korean Ginseng(Panax ginseng) 5 Human body Korea, Manchuria
American Hwagisam(Panax quinquefolium) 5 Spindle-shape North America
Chinese Sanchiisam(Panax notoginseng) 7 Small carrot Yunnan(China)
Japanese Bamboosam(Panax japonium) 5 Bamboo Japan, Yunnan
Dwarf Ginseng(Panax trifolium) 3 Spherical Northeastern America
Himalayan Ginseng(Panax pseudoginseng) 5 Bulbous Nepal

American Ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.)

American Ginseng roots form a spindle shaped main root and a
rootlet comes out from the rhizome to form another section.
Generally the main root is thinner and longer than the Korean
Ginseng, however rootlets are not fully developed. Although the
subterranean stem is about the same length as Korean Ginseng,
its hypertrophy or flesh is not substantial and the branch length
ranges from 3-50 cm.
On the average, there are four to five upper compound leaves in
the mid-section of the branch made up of five petioles and the
petioles are in needle shapes with its sides are serrated and the end of the leaf is narrow.

The color of a mature fruit is scarlet and there are one to three seeds inside the berry.
To discern the Korean Ginseng, Korean Ginseng has a smooth texture and easier to chew with
its own unique strong smell. However, American Ginseng doesnĄ¯t break apart easily when
chewed and the texture is highly fibrous and tastes like raw medicine.

Sanchiisam (Panax notoginseng Burk F. H. Chen)

Form: The root is overall straight with bumps on its main root.
It is dark and it is in a baby carrot shape and about three to four
centimeters long. The subterranean stem is short and straight with
oval, obovoid, or needle shaped petioles.

In the middle of the branch is three to four upper compound leaves
made up of five to seven petioles. It is called "sanchiisam" because
it has seven petioles on a single compound leaf. The fruit is oblong
and when matured it is red and has two seeds inside.

Bamboosam (Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer)

Form: Subterranean stem grows horizontal and it is called
"bamboosam" because it has short joints like bamboos.
The branch has an upper compound leaf in the middle with five
petioles and the peduncles stem from the top of the branch with
several Ginseng inflorescences on a single peduncle.


Dwarfsam(Panax trifolius), Himalayansam(Panax pseudoginseng)

The dwarf ginseng is extremely small spherical roots and
Himalayan ginseng with its round irregular and bulbous
branches off the main roots are not harvested for medicinal